Under the ISO 14004 guidelines, the initial environmental review (IER) is the first step taken by a company in considering, systematically and strategically, all the aspects underlying the complex relationship between its production systems and the ecological and social environments. In early 1998, when an ISO 14001 certification project started, the top management of Mazzucconi SpA, an Italian aluminium foundry, was aware of the crucial role of the IER in defining effective environmental policy and programmes. The company also knew that the IER would demand significant human and financial resources in terms of overall project cost. Therefore, a new multi-criteria assessment model (see Fig. 10.1) was requested and implemented in order to identify significant environmental aspects and allow better integration with other company objectives and strategies, so highlighting the strategic potential of environmental management and ISO 14001 certification.