In 2000 it was estimated that 43% of the rural population in Mozambique had access to improved water sources (World Bank 2001: 143): a rapid rise from 6% in 1980 (DNA 1995). While the figures demonstrate a substantial investment in infrastructure, primarily in the form of boreholes fitted with hand pumps, they do not address the Mozambique government’s concern that ‘in rural areas where hand-pumps are installed it is still difficult to keep them operational’ (DNA 1995). This concern is substantiated by the estimation that, of the approximately 250,000 hand pumps in Africa, less than half are operational (SKAT 2000). This chapter reflects on the difficulties associated with providing sustainable water supplies to communities living in the rural area of Chicomo in Southern Mozambique where ground-water is up to 93 metres below the surface. Pump selection and technical modifications for deep-well hand pumps, as well as community ownership, training and resourcing are discussed. While many of the lessons learned by Oxfam Australia are specific to the context, the broader issues of appropriate technology and capacity building of community structures will be relevant to service providers working in a variety of sectors.