In this chapter we study two aspects of inland navigation between the Netherlands and Germany, where an important part, about 50%, of freight transport takes place along the river Rhine. The first aspect is that the rivers on which this transport moves are influenced by climate change. Climate change may well lead to increases in the length of low-water periods, which decreases the capacity of barges 1 and increases the cost of transport. Furthermore, the river may have less-predictable water levels as a result of heavier rainfalls in certain parts of the year.