Early life adversity can have a lasting impact on neurodevelopment with consequences for health and behavior. There is increasing evidence that a wide range of environmental exposures (e.g. nutritional, toxicological, social) can alter the developing brain through epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic modifications—molecular pathways through which the activity of genes is altered without altering the underlying DNA sequence—play a critical role in the normal process of development and are potentially heritable. The plasticity of epigenetic pathways in response to the quality of social experiences suggests an intimate interplay between nature and nurture in shaping the developing brain. In this chapter, I will describe emerging evidence for the epigenetic impact of early life adversity, including stress, trauma, and childhood neglect and abuse. I will also discuss the pathways through which these experiences may lead to the transmission of the effects of adversity across generations and the potential for reversibility of epigenetic effects through intervention.