If we take a longer look at human well-being, rather than a snapshot, what is most striking is that mental health problems have steadily increased over the last 80 years. Cross-temporal meta-analyses of data from over 75,000 students in the United States collected since 1938 find large generational increases in depression and other forms of psychopathology, with five times as many now scoring above established cut-off points (Twenge et al., 2010). Of course, there are many reasons for this deterioration in mental health, also recorded in other economically developed countries, including the United Kingdom where depression and anxiety in adolescents have increased by 70% since the 1980s (Young Minds at www.youngminds.org.uk). The large-scale US analysis is compelling, not only because it spans such a long time, but also because it tested several factors that may be particularly significant causes of mental ill health. Periods of economic recession and boom were not found to be significant influences, nor changes in stigma attached to reporting, and seeking treatment for, mental health problems. The results best fit a model of cultural shifts towards extrinsic values, such as materialism and status, and away from intrinsic values such as community involvement, meaning in life, and close relationships. Alongside rising psychopathology, the percentage of young adults who reported wealth, expensive possessions, and status as essential long-term life goals increased dramatically, rising from below 30% to over 75%, while the importance of other goals dwindled away.