Although government policies during the 1980s have cast parents primarily in the roles of consumers, managers and agents of competition, rather than as partners in the education process, it is now becoming more widely accepted that positive parental involvement and partnership with schools is one of the prerequisites of effective schooling and that co-operation between home and school can raise educational achievement. Accordingly, there is now considerable interest in encouraging parents to participate more directly in their children’s schooling, to give parents more access to information about education, and to develop more structured home–school links.