Following naturally triggered disasters such as floods, earthquakes, or tsunami, post-disaster recovery activities undertaken by humanitarian organizations operate largely on a model derived from responding to need in rural areas. Part of the assumption underlying that response has been that goods (relief items such as water, food, and shelter) need to be supplied by agencies themselves, given that such items may not exist or may be in short supply. Implementing such a model has been problematic, however, when faced with disasters occurring in urban contexts, where the operating environment is fundamentally different. Goods may already exist, along with professional services; a cash-based society relying on markets may be more prevalent; and multiple governance systems may be in place. Urban areas are also, of course, characterized by their physicality – the density of multiple uses of the same space, infrastructure, and services.