Energy intake is the cornerstone of the diet for the exercising female, since it provides the foundation for macro- and micronutrient recommendations to ensure optimal health and performance. The determination of adequate energy intake is not a clear science; however, most exercising females who consume <2000 kcal or <30 kcal/kg of body mass per day are at risk for menstrual dysfunction, and suboptimal health and performance. Carbohydrates are considered the ‘master fuel’ because they provide energy for both aerobic and anaerobic exercise and are necessary for the oxidation of fat; therefore, they should represent the majority of Calories consumed. Expressed relative to body mass, recommendations for carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake range from 5–8 g/kg, 1.2–2.0 g/kg, and >1 g/kg, respectively. Nutrient timing and fuelling strategies that promote high carbohydrate availability and increase muscle protein synthesis, such as carbohydrate loading and the consumption of essential amino acids post-exercise, are also important for optimal training, performance, and recovery. Consuming moderate amounts (~25–30 g) of high-quality protein at each meal may also stimulate 24-hr muscle protein synthesis. Exercising females who restrict energy intake or avoid individual foods or food groups are at risk for inadequate intakes of the macronutrients and several nutrients of concern, including calcium, vitamin D, iron, magnesium, and zinc. In this case, supplementation may be warranted to treat or prevent a deficiency.