This introductory chapter aims to add to (re) discuss some basic concepts, such as: identity, diversity, difference, recognizing and ‘managing’ diversity, engagement in dialogue, and, on the other hand, to highlight some important parameters of the discourse on diversity, such as: recognition and ‘management’ of diversity on the individual and collective levels; diversity and power structures; diversity and the collective demand for equality; functions of diversity; diversity and self-differentiation; diversity and dialogical subjectivity; and pedagogic rhetoric in diverse societies. The basis for this discussion comes from the experiences and knowledge of the country in which the author studied and worked, i.e. Germany, and also of Greece and the Greek Diaspora, along with reviewing the relevant literature. After making conceptual clarifications in the first chapter, the second and third chapters are approaches to diversity at a social level; the second from the perspective of the dominant group and the third from the perspective of the minority. In contrast, the focus of the fourth chapter is diversity in relation to the individual.