The cultural-mainly linguistic homogenization of the populations was, and still is, one of the main purposes of the Nation-States all over Europe. The national educational systems attempt to achieve a high level of fluency in the official language for all the citizens, having, as a rule, a disregardful or even a hostile attitude against minority languages. However, many European States have shown, in cases, a remarkable acceptance and support in the presence and cultivation of certain minority languages, for certain historical and political reasons. The present chapter aims at presenting a brief comparative study of eight officially recognized bilingual educational systems operating in regions of European States. The study draws attention to the position of the minority language in education and on the time of attribution of linguistic rights, attempting to arrive to remarks and ascertainments on the formation of language educational policies regarding historical minority and regional languages in Europe.