The objective of this chapter is to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative conditions of water resources in Bulgaria during the 1982-1994 drought and to use this period as a model for future climate change. This investigation is based mainly on quantitative analysis; historical data is abundant for river discharge, precipitation, and air temperature. These data correlate with global data from other countries and with astronomical parameters such as solar activity and radiation. Such correlations allow objective assessments to be made for a long historical period. Qualitative analysis is mainly used when estimating anthropogenic impacts.