The worldwide loss of biodiversity is recognised as one of today's greatest global environmental problems. While attention is primarily focused on tropical rainforests, all regions of the world, including Norway, suffer from deterioration and loss of habitats and species. Apart from the loss of aesthetic and intrinsic value, the loss of species and habitats threatens the provision of numerous goods and services, from food and medicine to local climate and water regulation. Land use change, fragmentation of habitats, pollution, and introduction of alien species represent major, human-induced threats to biodiversity. The most comprehensive response to this global threat is found in the international Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).