The countries of what is now the European Union (EU) have been developing institutions and processes for creating and implementing a common foreign policy since the early 1970s. Security concerns were added in the 1980s and 1990s and now, into the twenty–first century, defense and military arrangements are taking shape. 2 The European Union of 2005 has the ways and means to develop security and defense policy and, at least in limited fashion, to deploy and control operational military units.