Infrastructure in general and transport infrastructure in particular are widely considered to be related to the economic development of an area. This observation is of special interest for the countries of Southeast Europe which, over the past fifteen years, have experienced drastic changes as the process of transition from socialism to market was accompanied by a series of wars, political unrest and strong economic decline. In this context, transport infrastructure could act as a contributing not only to its economic development and cohesion, but also to the security and the political stability of the area. This chapter seeks to analyze the relevant issues in the following two parts. The first part provides an overview of the present situation with regard to transport infrastructure, with an examination, in particular, of the main features and problems, while the second part discusses the overall strategic framework and the formulation of strategic priorities for the development of transport infrastructure in the area. The conclusions emphasize the prospects of policy integration in the midst of the diverging priorities pursued by the main actors involved in the field of transport infrastructure such as the international financial organizations, the EU and the national governments of the area.