Theories that explain causes of international migration have been central to migration studies. These have been presented as having universal relevance, but to what extent do they apply to the diverse populations that migrate across the globe? This chapter uses the findings of a research project on Ethiopian migration to explore the extent to which the rationales and theories underpinning contemporary analyses of migration can explain Ethiopian migration to the Western world. Without pretending to explore exhaustively the theories available, I consider the empirical case of Ethiopian migration to the West with respect of four theories that have played a significant role in informing debates within the field of migration studies.