Being the most developed part of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), the present chapter analyses the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) to shed light on some key dimensions of the BRI. Through this case study, it will be argued that the BRI is an economic initiative with clear strategic motivations and repercussions. This is illustrated by the reasons behind China’s choice of the CPEC as the ‘flagship project’ of the BRI: the high level of trust and stability in China-Pakistan relations; the strategic benefits derived for China from a stronger Pakistan; the enormous complementarities between the needs of the Pakistani economy and what the BRI has to offer; and the impact of CPEC on the stabilisation of Xinjiang. The challenges faced by the CPEC are also considered to evaluate the prospects for a successful implementation of the BRI. In conclusion, it is argued that to fulfil its goals, the CPEC cannot be just a transit corridor, but an economic, or, even better, a development corridor. The actual nature of this corridor will be a meaningful indicator of the impact that the whole BRI might have.