The chapter aims to (1) present a case study in Ghana which relies on experimentalist frameworks and illustrates an evidence-based participatory process that informs and influences policymakers through the development of an agricultural sub-sector strategy to achieve goals that necessitate crosscutting policies, collective action and collaboration; (2) explore empirical applications of experimentalist frameworks that can enable the right type of participation for policy development and implementation in the context of complex problems associated to smallholder farmer participation, food security and value chain articulation and (3) demonstrate that collective or stakeholder-driven problem identification, analysis and response formulation – and the linkage with governance frameworks that promote it – can be a more inclusive and effective approach to top-down derived interventions.