This chapter contributes to the debate by assessing the complex relationship between local civil society and governments in post-conflict Burundi and Liberia. It particularly examines the significance of external resources and international civil society support as a component of foreign aid for reconstruction and development in the dynamics of cooperation and competition between government and non-governmental actors. It does so by paying particular attention to the time-space constraints of the social processes under investigation. Noting that social movements’ literature has had little application in Africa, the chapter focuses on the everyday practices of women CSOs in post-conflict Burundi and Liberia, their strategies and adaptation techniques to the presence of international actors specialised in development and security activities and the changing nature of their relationship to the state. For so doing, the chapter first offers a brief discussion of the theoretical framework by interrogating the academic literature on women civil society organisations and the state in fragile context. Second, it uses this framework to illustrate the cases of Burundi and Liberia in order to demonstrate that the dynamics of cooperation and competition between state and civil society have resulted in a (con) fusion of both actors on the ground, making it very difficult to differentiate them in practice. Finally, a discussion and conclusion on the consequences of the evolving nature of the relationship between the state, women CSOs and international partners will be developed. In this discussion, the chapter explores how the changing relations between women CSOs and the state are contributing to novel constructions of gender and women.