Two convictions of the nineteenth century made the education or socialization of the young a pressing concern for every public man and every public institution. 1 The first was that education was too important to be entrusted to informal processes — too important for society to indulge the belief that family solicitude, neighborhood interest, the proximity of the church, or the tutelage of farm or factory work would add up to education. Formal schools were needed, not just for the very special purposes for which they had for so long been cherished, but for all kinds of education.