Public school advocates and their Catholic school counterparts have argued over the curricular ingredients necessary to transform children into productive patriotic Americans since the mid-nineteenth century. Indeed, the question of proper social values has been the critical issue in the endless debate over parochial education. Supporters of public education argued that parochial education indoctrinated children so that they could be manipulated by priests with monarchial and authoritarian ideas. Catholic school leaders refuted these charges and countered that parochial education was an act of patriotism because it taught children to cherish American principles — respect for home and family, reverence for God, and love of country. Although the manner and the method of the arguments regarding parochial education changed over time, both sides remained adament in their claims.