This chapter captures the history of the Korean government’s effort to fulfill the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) over the past two decades. As early as 1996, the Ministry of Environment established and coordinated national action plans for Rio Agenda 21 among the relevant government organizations. In 2000, the Presidential Commission on Sustainable Development (PCSD) was established to manage all sustainable development issues, and the National Environmental Vision for the New Millennium was implemented as the national master plan for sustainable development. Based on this clear direction for national growth, three National Strategies for Sustainable Development have been implemented since 2006. Furthermore, the Korean government’s strong desire to contribute to the international effort on sustainable development can be seen in the enactment of the Framework Act on Sustainable Development in 2007, which was later superseded in 2010 by the Act on Sustainable Development. Further, as of 2008, a new approach towards sustainable development was carried out through a new national vision of ‘low carbon, green growth.’ Following this historical overview of Korea’s actions for implementing sustainable development, the chapter concludes with policy implications for the new administration, which bears the heavy burden of nurturing the heritage of past governments.