Human security has emerged as a more comprehensive approach to secure people across the world. However, in the African context, human security has proved difficult to realise in the wake of interconnectedness through information technologies that have exacerbated contemporary security challenges like civil war/“new wars”, state fragility, terrorism, poverty and human trafficking. While a few gains can be noticed in human rights, overall Africa’s connection to the global economy seems to have worsened human insecurity on the continent. This chapter examines the international political economy (IPE) of human security in contemporary Africa. It begins with a brief section on theories of IPE and how they relate to security. The section that follows defines human security. Thereafter, the chapter critically examines the application of theories of IPE to human security in Africa. Selected issues in IPE and human security in Africa are discussed in the last section. The chapter concludes that contemporary international political economy poses a threat on human security in Africa and that a human security perspective allows for such challenges to be observed and responded to by both academics and policymakers.