Several European nations have a long history of immigration; however, in recent years, and as this book goes to press, immigration has dominated the headlines of European media and has grown exponentially, even in countries where it was previously relatively unknown. Waves of refugees fleeing war zones, violent conditions, and areas in which climate change has created water and food insecurity have left their homelands in search of a safer life elsewhere. Furthermore, globalization and migration from African and Asian countries is creating remarkable shifts in European nations’ demographics. The European landscape is changing rapidly, Europe is becoming an increasingly multi-ethnic, multiracial, and religiously diverse society; these changes are shaping sociopolitical and institutional contexts. Immigrants are facing interpersonal, institutional, and cultural oppression. Every day the media reports on violence against those who are, or are perceived to be, non-Europeans. Institutionalized racism and xenophobia are evident, and among many other indicators, is the rise of right-wing and populist movements, who often join forces on anti-immigration political platforms.