The two decades since the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995 have seen a surge in the formation of reciprocal free trade agreements (FTAs). Between 1995 and 2017 the number of FTAs notified to the WTO increased from around 50 to over 320.1 While earlier agreements focused on the elimination of bilateral tariffs, modern FTAs usually include a large number of additional provisions focusing on non-tariff barriers and behind-the-border policies such as state aid or competition policy, as well as measures that are only indirectly linked to trade such as human rights or consumer protection.2