This chapter contrasts two different approaches – ‘managerial’ and ‘teaching-as-a-profession’ – to explain how the ideas around the work of teachers and teaching in general, and more specifically with reference to government school teachers, are being conceptualised in contemporary policy debates. It provides two distinct formulations around issues of accountability, efficiency, motivation, qualifications and capacities, pedagogy, knowledge and beliefs, professionalism and agency of the teachers. The chapter advocates for giving centrality to pedagogic efforts and teacher beliefs in conceptualisation of teaching against the technical approach to teaching emanating from ‘New Public Management’ discourse.