This chapter explores how, given the essential relationship between education aims and quality of education, the aims of education have been articulated in existing normative frameworks at the international, national and sub-national levels. It examines questions about who is considered to be the subject of these aims – the individual child, families, the community or the government; who is expected to ensure that the aims of education are fulfilled – the government, private actors or the community; and by what means and methods are the aims expected to be realised.