In the Introduction, we provide an outline of the new discursive regime in Indian school education, focused on concepts of efficiency, accountability and outcomes, that has been shaping ideas around ‘quality’ of education in recent times. We outline the debates around this new discursive regime; these include a critique that has been emerging from among educationists, which we extend in this volume. We discuss the changing context of school education that has been the ground for the above debates and ideas. We end with an outline of the contributions to this volume.