Since the 1980s, Muslim women’s rights activists and scholars in Southeast Asia have struggled for the right of women to substantiate and submit their own interpretations of the Qur’an and the sunna with a particular focus on how such interpretations can impact reforms in Muslim family law. Informed by fieldwork with various Muslim women and organizations in Malaysia and Indonesia, the author explores the histories of several women’s organizations and the roles of women in Southeast Asian institutions and debates surrounding gender justice and the protection of women in family law. Schröter traces the origins of these organizations and debates, including the role of feminism, and offers concluding thoughts on the future of feminist Islamic theology in this important contemporary Muslim-majority region.