There is strong interest and rationale for development practitioners and policy makers to seek engagement with Indigenous Peoples (IPs), particularly in this time of global food, water, and climate crisis. For these collaborations to be effective, it is important to understand that IPs are distinct from other Peoples/groupings (e.g., the rural poor, small farmers). This chapter summarises who Indigenous Peoples (IPs) are, and the role that they, their knowledge systems and institutions play regarding global biocultural diversity and agricultural systems. It notes the international framework designed to recognise and protect IPs’ rights, and lists threats to IPs’ food security and food systems. It suggests ways forward for engagement with IPs to support their food security priorities and participation in all stages of policy making, grounded in their right of self-determination, development with identity, and adherence to IPs’ own local protocols and cultural indicators.