Despite relations that were established only in 1990, Russia has regarded South Korea as one of the key regional partners in East Asia. The Russian elite believes that relations with South Korea have the potential to foster the modernization and economic development of Russia as well as contribute to the peaceful resolution of conflict on the Korean Peninsula. On the Korean Peninsula Russia’s policy has been promoting peaceful resolution of the North Korean nuclear issue, construction of a new security architecture in the region. Russia–South Korean relations flourished during the “liberal decade”. During the conservative administrations of Lee Myung-bak and Park Geun-hye relations between Russia and South Korea were characterized by active official contacts, but in reality, initially lacked substance in political and security cooperation. The Moon Jae-in administration presents a unique window of opportunity for Russia–South Korea relations, as the new administration focuses on improving relations with Russia within its new Northern policy and establishing “nine bridges” of cooperation, with a possibility of a different security and North Korean policy.