The principal aim of the chapter is to analyse the way in which Europe (equated with the European Union) is perceived in Russia in terms of differences between European and Russian identities. The main research hypothesis is that Russian élites and other social actors perceive those differences by establishing a direct opposition between their own and European identity. Russians are persuaded that the traits characterising Europeans constitute a mirror image of their own traits, which is the consequence of the fact that Russia’s world view is developed as the antithesis of the paradigms developed by the West, especially by Europe. The analysis in the chapter – which is basically grounded in a Constructivist perspective – firstly includes an indication of the genesis, sources and nature of such attitudes. Secondly, in the following parts and in the conclusions of the chapter an overall assessment of the axiological nature of challenges for the EU arising from Russian perception of European identity is provided, especially in the context of Russia’s critique of the notion of the EU as a normative power.