Following Stenhouse’s (1975) argument that curriculum can be seen as a selective reflection of cultural and political values in society, the focus of the chapter is on the specific ways in which English as an Additional Language (EAL) is understood and enacted by policy makers and educators in two very different curriculum environments. The chapter looks at the conceptualisations and educational values underlying the curriculum provision for the teaching of EAL in school education in the English and Brazilian contexts. These two situated accounts will help make the point that broad pedagogic principles, e.g. Communicative Language Teaching, can be interpreted and enacted in different ways. The specific character of EAL in any education system is shaped, at least in part, by a confluence of the perceived educational needs of students, prevailing pedagogic approaches, social values and attitudes, and societal priorities. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the need to construe EAL as a curricular artefact, the characteristics of which can only be understood by taking account of situated intellectual and socio-cultural sensibilities, and established local educational practices.