Drawing on peer-reviewed research and primary source materials from India, China, and the United States, this chapter discusses the historical evolution of China and India’s space programs and analyzes both the cooperative and competitive dimensions of China and India’s outer space activities. It concludes with a discussion of the role of both states in contemporary multilateral space initiatives, and considers the role of both cooperation and competition between the two powers in the evolving governance policies and practices for the global commons beyond our atmosphere.