It is clear from the preceding chapters that the South is indeed rising, and that the emerging economies are challenging traditional global power relations and development orthodoxies. Simultaneously, while much has happened in terms of economic development, there have been very few positive changes regarding environmental sustainability. All of the 12 case studies reveal that their ‘emergence’ is based on an intensified exploitation of natural resources, be it land, water, minerals or fossil fuels, although the development path is far from uniform. They furthermore demonstrate that the ambition of achieving sustainable development globally is severely challenged by the rise of the South. As will be discussed below, combined with the dismal environmental performance of the North, this challenges the very definition of development. Instead of a mere summary, this last chapter sets out to revisit the central themes of this book as presented in the introductory section: the emerging economies and their development strategies, and sustainable development within this context. We use the case studies to illustrate certain features of modern development, and move beyond the empirical claims of each chapter. In doing so, we approach the case countries as a group as well as the interaction between them.