For countries in the semi-arid and arid tropics, sustainability of agricultural production is largely dependent on irrigation water security (Grey and Sadoff, 2007; Shah and Kumar, 2008). Many such regions are primarily dependent on groundwater for irrigation (Schiffl er, 1998). Developing countries, with disproportionate semi-arid and arid tropical regions, face problems of groundwater overdraft due to excessive irrigation withdrawals, which threaten the sustainability of agricultural production and livelihoods of millions of rural families depending on it. India, China, Mexico, Oman, Iran, Pakistan and Morocco are just some among them trying to tackle groundwater overdraft through a variety of approaches (Garduño and Foster, 2010; Giordano and Villholth, 2007; Kumar, 2007; Kumar, Scott and Singh, 2011; Scott, 2011; Scott and Shah, 2004). In such regions, energy and water security are inextricably mixed.