Urban social spatial structure is a key urban study area that focuses on the analysis of urban social issues and spatial behavior issues and reveals temporal and spatial process and characteristics. This chapter uses Shanghais population census, a one percent sample survey, and other socio-economic statistics to explain the changing path of Shanghais economic developmental transition, patterns and trends of spatial evolvement, and related social problems. Shanghais urban planning from 1980 to 2000 focused on adjustments to the industrial layout and suburban development, which affected population distribution and resulted in suburbs starting to emerge. At the start of the twenty-first century, Shanghai proposed a new phase of urban development, which focused specifically on the development of the suburbs. In the Tenth Five-year Plan, Shanghai formed the urban system structure of Central city and central town-suburbs or residential villages. In the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, Shanghai made new adjustments to urban planning, known as the 1966 plan.