The healthcare industry in Thailand has grown domestically due to the changes in key health determinants such as socio-economic and political development, demography and migration, biomedical technology advancement, and health seeking behaviour and lifestyle changes during the past decades. The data from the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) show the country’s increasing total health expenditures. The increasing trend is also observed in both public and private sectors. In addition to an increase in domestic demand, medical tourism has been emerging globally and has boosted the international demand for healthcare services attracting people from all around the world. Sizeable opportunities in the healthcare sector are predicted for Southeast Asia, including Thailand. However, this imposes many problems regarding the impacts of the Medical Hub policy, and its consequences, in both positive and negative lights. Various studies have shown the existence of these problems, with many supporting the promotion of medical tourism and also many disagreeing with this policy. The Thai health system is quite complex, involves many stakeholders and has a long history of development.