Today, the right to health care in Taiwan is no longer considered one’s own responsibility, as was the case half a century ago. Following a phase of rapid economic transition and industrialization, together with an epidemiological shift, universal health insurance was inaugurated as a response to a dynamic mix of socio-cultural, economic and political factors. Almost two decades after its inauguration, Taiwan’s National Health Insurance (NHI) is now one of the most received public policies. It not only provides equitable access for all citizens to healthcare providers practising in Taiwan and its surrounding islands, but also protects citizens against impoverishment as a result of out-of-pocket payments for health care.