Primary care has become of specifi c interest in China, and the wider and deeper signifi cance of primary care in making healthcare delivery more effi cient has increasingly been discussed at a political level. Initiatives to systematically strengthen community-based primary care services are being put at the top of the government agenda. This chapter focuses on describing the past, present and future of primary care development in China in terms of policy, organization and management within the context of China’s healthcare reforms. It outlines the historical development of primary care and provides a comprehensive description of the status quo, as well as describing different primary care ownership and management models being implemented in urban areas. Challenges facing primary care in China are discussed and future perspectives are also explored.