The HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) is a global one. The HIV prevalence among MSM in Western countries rebounded after the initial decline observed during the 1980s and early 1990s [1-4]. In various Asian countries, a sharp increase in HIV prevalence has been observed. For instance, the HIV prevalence among MSM increased rapidly from 17 per cent in 2003 to 28 per cent in 2009 in Bangkok, Thailand [5] and from 5.2 per cent in 2007 to 8.5 per cent in 2011 in Indonesia [6, 7]. Concentrated prevention efforts have shown to be effective in controlling HIV epidemics in some heterosexual populations, such as the well-known 100 per cent condom campaign conducted in Thailand [8, 9] and the effective HIV prevention campaign conducted in Cambodia [10].