This chapter uses the Shanghai Municipal Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDC) as a case study to discuss how Centres for Disease Control (CDC) operate in China. A brief summary of Shanghai and the health status of its residents is presented fi rst, followed by a detailed study of how the CDC system works and its partnership in Shanghai. The chapter goes on to describe control and response plans for various infectious diseases, as well as the role of the CDC in non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Then, a discussion of the involvement of the SCDC and CDCs in public health security in the city is presented, and the chapter concludes with an overview of the public health challenges and opportunities Shanghai faces in the wake of globalization.