Health is a common goal shared by virtually all societies and their governments. Across the globe, countries show interesting similarities and differences in the way their government agencies interact with societies in fostering citizens’ health. Such interactions have become increasingly dynamic in the contemporary era of globalization, information technology revolution and shifting social, political and economic landscapes. In this chapter, we examine, in broad terms, the government’s role in controlling diseases and follow with a case study from the Centre for Health Protection (CHP), which is the corresponding government agency for health control in Hong Kong, China.