Population ageing is a new and serious challenge for Japan, a country which has achieved the world’s longest life expectancy. As Japan’s life expectancy has increased over the past decades, its fertility rate has simultaneously decreased resulting in an increased elderly population. As of 2011, the population of Japan was 127.8 million of which 23.3 per cent (29.8 million) were elderly (over 65 years old) [1]. With this astounding fi gure, Japan currently has the world’s highest elderly population.