In the course of the twentieth century, many new types of music developed in Africa, and these coexist with the traditional types of African music. In most cases, the new types bear imprints of traditional music, to a greater or lesser degree. There are some new types in which the essential stylistic resources are derived from traditional music; the connection between these new types and their traditional prototypes are obvious. Average Africans have no difficulty in identifying themselves with such new types. In other cases, the relationship with traditional music is obscure, and I refer in this instance to music composed by Africans whose training has been in Western music. Although such composers usually incorporate elements of African culture into their works, these elements tend to be lost because they are presented in a stylistic context that is overwhelmingly Western. It is difficult for average Africans to relate to the works of such composers, and the question therefore arises about the relevance of these works to the African society.