In the international literature, Chinese education is frequently described in ways that make it seem antithetical to the aim of creative thinking. It is depicted as an exam-focused education system, one overly emphasizing rote memorization and largely blocking creativity and innovation (Vandervert, 2013; Martinsons & Martinsons, 1996; Gu & Johnson, 1996). It is considered more a reproductive process of accumulating information rather than an analytical or speculative process (Ballard & Clanchy, 1991; Conner, 1996). The students in this system of education are generally described as merely quiet learners, reluctant to participate in classroom activities and to ask questions. They are rote learners, who learn mechanically, yet lack meaningful understanding and creativity (Li & Wegerif, 2014).