From the early 1960’s to the late 1970’s research in childrearing and child development in the United States underwent a phenomenal growth. Much of this research has focused on lower-class and minority children. Moreover, the social and political climate of the period has encouraged improvement research—i.e., research designed to yield information that would be used to improve the life chances of poor and minority children. The underlying assumption is that high unemployment, inadequate employment, and poverty among the poor and minorities in America are due to inadequate education caused by inadequate childrearing practices (Bloom, Davis, & Hess 1965; Hunt 1969; White, Day, Freeman, Hartman, & Messenger, 1973).