Applications of psychology to sport and fitness have advanced enormously over the past 20 years. It was 1969 when I published my first brief article on psychology and sport. At that time, it seemed interest was just beginning, although some pioneers had made or were about to make major contributions (e.g., Beisser, 1967; Morgan, 1972; Ogilvie & Tutko, 1966; Singer, 1972; Whiting, 1969). Today the application of psychology to sport and fitness is a two-way street, and the interchange is booming. Books, journals, clinical practices, sections in the major psychological associations as well as the media, athletes, and many coaches have made the applications of psychology to sport and fitness a specialized field of inquiry and investigation. Not only have many in sport benefited from learning from psychologists and psychology; but psychology has benefited by entering into the field of sport practice and sport studies to test and to expand some key theories and hypotheses.