ABSTRACT This study examined recidivism rates over a 15-year period among former inmates who learned the Transcendental Meditation (TM)1 program at a maximum security prison in California. Recidivism outcomes for participants in the TM program were compared with those of matched controls using survival analysis, a general statistical technique for analysis of failure processes. With recidivism defined as rearrest leading to felony conviction, the TM group had a 46.7% recidivism rate during the follow-up period compared to 66.7% for the controls. Survival analysis, using a variety of statistical models and controlling for 22 demographic and criminal background variables, showed that this decrease was statistically significant.