ABSTRACT Part III of the Walpole Prison Study builds on the earlier longitudinal and cross-sectional findings in Parts I and II that reported reduced psychopathology and accelerated psychological development in members of the Transcendental Meditation1 prison program. Part III is a retrospective investigation of recidivism among 286 inmates released from Walpole prison, who were followed for up to 59 months. The sample comprised all subjects from the following sources who had been released six months prior to data collection: (a) all inmates who had learned the TM program at Walpole; (b) random samples of four other prison programs at Walpole (counseling, drug rehabilitation, Christian, and Muslim); (c) a random sample of the Walpole inmate population; and (d) subjects who were tested longitudinally in the prior Walpole studies.