ABSTRACT Effective rehabilitation of repeat offenders is a way to prevent crime. The Transcendental Meditation (TM)1 program is an especially promising approach to offender rehabilitation because evidence indicates that this program promotes improvements in both mental and physical health that support law-abiding behavior. The present cross-sectional study of 160 maximum-security prisoners at the Massachusetts Correctional Institution, Walpole, is a multifaceted comparison of differences in self-development and psychopathology between the TM group and various control groups.